[As has been said above, it is as Las Moradas ("The Mansions") that this book is known in Spain.]
The letter [printed, in Spanish, by P. Silverio, II, 490-505] is dated September 4, 1588. The anecdote is told more briefly in Yepes' biography of St. Teresa, Bk. II, Chap. XX.
Cf. The Life of Teresa of Jesus, translated and edited by E. Allison Peers; Image Books Edition, p. 62.
Cf. Relations, VI (Vol. I, The Complete Works of St. Teresa, translated and edited by E. Allison Peers; Sheed and Ward, p. 334).
Dilucidario del verdadero espíritu, Chap. V.
[A fuller exposition, in English, will be found in S.S.M., I, 162-91.]
The titles are here given in the form in which they appear in the editio princeps, which is practically identical with that of the Toledo copy.
See p. 23, n. 1, below.
Cf. p. 264, below. Some critics write as if there were an interruption of five months during the composition of the book, but that is not what the passage says. Were it so, it would mean that the book was written in about four weeks.
[Cit. P. Silverio, IV, xxxvi.]
Op. cit., IV, xxxvii.
Op. Cit., IV, xxxviii.
As a kind of sub-title St. Teresa wrote on the back of the first page of the autograph: "This treatise, called 'Interior Castle', was written by Teresa of Jesus, nun of Our Lady of Carmel to her sisters and daughters the Discalced Carmelite nuns." Below this is a note by P. Ribera (formerly attributed to Fray Luis de León) which asserts [somewhat verbosely, for which reason the full text is not here translated] that the marginal emendations in the autograph are often inconsistent with other parts of the text and in any case are inferior to the author's own words, and begs readers to respect "the words and letters written by that most holy hand". [It is noteworthy that the word "mansions (moradas: n. 18, below), by which the book is generally known in Spain, does not appear in the title or sub-title of the autograph, though it occurs in the title of each of the seven sections of the book.]
June 2, 1577.
The words "Roman Catholic" are inserted by the author interlineally.
[Aposentos -- a rather more pretentious word than the English "room": dwellingplace, abode, apartment.]
[Moradas: derived from morar, to dwell, and not, therefore, absolute identical in sense with "mansions". The reference, however, is to St. John xiv, 2.]
Proverbs viii, 31.
Genesis i, 26.
Here the Saint erased several words and inserted others, leaving the phrase as it is in the text.
[Moradas (see n. 18, above).]
St. John ix, 2.
Genesis xix, 26.
[Lit., "into such bestiality".] P. Gracián deletes "bestiality" and substitutes "abomination." [I think the translation in the text, however, is a more successful way of expressing what was in St. Teresa's mind: cf. St. John of the Cross's observations on "animal penances" -- penitencias de bestias -- in his Dark Night, I, vi (Complete Works, I, 365-6.)]
P. Gracián corrects this to "thirty-eight years." St. John v, 5.
St. Matthew vi, 21.
Psalm i, 3.
Lit.: "fruit", for which P. Gracián substitutes "merit."
St. Teresa herself. See Relation XXIV (Vol. I, The Complete Works of St. Teresa, translated and edited by E. Allison Peers, p. 345).
Psalm cxxvi, 2 [AV., cxxvii, 1].
The palmito is a shrub, common in the south and east of Spain, with thick layers of leaves enclosing a succulent edible kernel.
[The autograph has, after the word "room", "Oh, but if it is (Uh, que si es) in (the room of) self-knowledge!" Previous editors have altered this difficult Spanish phrase to aunque sea, "not even if it is." St. Teresa's meaning however, seems to me quite clearly the opposite of this, though it is impossible to translate her exclamation literally.]
[Lit.: "excess is as bad as defect."]
[Ratero: creeping, flying low, content with a low standard.]
Lit., "a million."
Lit: "and had earth on his eyes."
See Life, Chapter XIII and Method for the visitation of convents.
Below this line St. Teresa wrote "Chapter," to which Luis de León prefixed the word "Only."
Life, Chaps. XI-XIII; Way of perfection, The Complete Works of St. Teresa, Chaps. XX-XXIX.
[The word (guisar: "season", "dress") is a homely one: "dished up" would hardly be too colloquial a translation.]
[St. Luke xv, 15-16].
Judges vii, 5. "With Gedeon in the Judges," adds P. Gracián in the margin, crossing out the words "I forget with whom".
Life, Chap. XI.
[Probably a conscious reference to St. Matthew vii, 26-7.]
St. Matthew xx, 22.
The autograph has, not casas ("homes") but cosas ("things"). Luis de León, however, read casas and succeeding editors have followed him.
St. John xx, 21.
Life, Chaps. XI, XIX.
Ecclesiasticus iii, 27.
St. John xiv, 6.
P. Gracián crossed through the bracketed words and wrote in the margin: "Both are said by St. John, Chapter xiv." [Actually the words are: "No man cometh. . . ."]
St. John xiv, 9.
St. Matthew x, 24.
St. Matthew xxiv, 41.
Psalm cxi, 1 (A.V. cxii, 1).
St. John xi, 16. The last four words are a marginal addition of the author's.
Gracián adds "in Heaven"; the addition is deleted by Ribera.
Gracián alters this to: "some who, although they are saints [a more exact translation would be "are saintly"], yet fell," but Ribera restores St. Teresa's reading.
Gracián alters this to: "we have no certainty of abandoning them and of doing, etc."
The bracketed words, which St. Teresa wrote in the margin of the autograph, are crossed out with two strokes. But Ribera has written underneath them: "This is not to be deleted."
[A striking example of St. Teresa's untranslatably concise language. The original is: Recia obediencia ha sido! Lit.: "Rigorous obedience (it) has been!"]
Gracián altered this word to "Absalom" but Ribera wrote in the margin: 'This should read 'Solomon', as the holy Mother said."
64Psalm cxi, 1 (A.V., cxii, 1).
The autograph makes this sentence negative, but partially deletes the negative particle. Luis de León, followed by later editors, omits it.
St. Matthew xix, 16-22.
The phrase "like . . . Gospel" was written by St. Teresa in the margin. [No doubt she recalled the reference to St. Matthew xix, 16-22, which she had made just above.]
[Or this clause might mean: "yet a person who gives all that he has thinks that he gives in fullest measure." But the interpretation in the text seems preferable.]
[St. Luke xvii, 10.] Gracián, in a note, gives the correct authorship.
"For what He has suffered for us" was substituted for the phrase by Gracián but the original text was restored by Ribera.
Gracián deleted the words "I write . . . truth" but Ribera wrote in the margin: "Nothing is to be deleted, for what the Saint says is well said."
[Lit.: "drove me silly" -- "me traían tonta": a typically homely and forcible expression. Cf. n. 91, below.]
"Very easily," added Gracián, interlinearly, but the addition is crossed out.
St. Luke xxii, 42.
[Lit.: "the Surgeon".]
[The Spanish phrase means, literally, "anyone of their humour", but there is no such "saying" as this in English.]
Cf. St. Teresa's definition of supernatural prayer in Relation V (Vol. I, p. 327).
From the outline of St. Teresa's life, Image Books Edition, (Vol. 1, pp. 27-37), it will be seen that this computation is approximately correct. The reference is to Life, Chaps. XI-XXVII.
[The word is the same as is used above for "sweetness" -- i.e., contentos, but in the singular. Such word-play, as we have seen, is common in St. Teresa: in the title of this very chapter we have an identical play on contentos ("sweetness") and contento ("happiness").]
83[Psalm cxviii, 32: "(I have run the way of thy commandments,) when thou didst enlarge my heart". A.V. cxix, 32.]
The remainder of this paragraph was scored through in the autograph by Gracián and are omitted from the Córdoba copy. They are, however, quite legible.
[Lit.: "from how the disposition is."]
Life, Chap. XII.
The words in brackets were written in the margin by St. Teresa and lightly scored out. Ribera, however, adds: "Nothing to be deleted." Gracián has added, interlineally, after "imagination": "for so we women generally call it."
[tan tortolito, an expressive phrase: "so like a little tórtola (turtle-dove)" -- i.e. not only timid, but irresolute and apparently stupid, like an inexperienced fledgling.]
[Here there is a play on words difficult to render in English: the word translated both "restrain" and "uniting" is atar -- "tie", "bind."]
[Traíame tonta. Cf. n. 72, above.]
Gracián scores out this sentence in the autograph.
Canticles viii, 1. Gracián has copied in the margin of the autograph the Spanish text of Canticles viii, 1-4.
[The original is quite colloquial: "in the mess I have got into" or "in what I have let myself in for" would be nearer its spirit.]
95Psalm cxviii, 32 (A.V., cxix, 32). Cf. n. 83, above.
Again, as above (n. 78), the Saint's computation is exactly correct.
[A very strong word, estrujarse. In its non-reflexive form, the verb means to squeeze, crush or press hard, or to extract something by so doing. The sense is, therefore, that with all our efforts we cannot squeeze out a drop of this water.]
Life, Chap. XVI; Way of perfection, Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX; Relations, V.
There is little doubt that St. Teresa is here using Bk. IX, Chap. VII of Francisco de Osuna's Third Spiritual Alphabet.
Confessions, Bk. X, Chap. XXVII [or Soliloquies, Chap. XXXI: cf. St. John of the Cross: II, 33, 196, n. 9.]
[Lit.: "conscious of a gentle interior shrinking": encogimiento, the noun used, means "shrinkage", "contraction"; it should be distinguished from recogimiento, a word often used by St. Teresa and translated "recollection".]
Osuna (op. cit., Bk. VI, Chap. IV) uses this simile of the hedgehog in much the same way.
The reference is presumably to the famous "Eighth Counsel" of the Treatise of Prayer and Meditation [Cf. S.S.M., II, 113-14].
"With his human skill", adds Gracián, interlinearly.
Way of perfection, Chap. XXXI.
St. Teresa had written "to discuss the effects of"' but deleted the last three words.
[The two Spanish words, on which St. Teresa plays so trenchantly, are added to their English equivalents so as to make the phrase intelligible.]
Gracián has scored through part of this sentence in the autograph.
St. Matthew xx, 16.
Gracián substitutes for "are": "follow the rule of being."
Gracián inserts the word "perhaps".
Luis de León modifies this passage [which has been slightly paraphrased in translation, the construction in the Spanish being rather obscure], reading, after "delight": "for, although it [the soul] is in Him, according to the truth, it appears to have withdrawn so far from the body, in order to come closer to God, that I do not know, etc."
"Of the soul alone", inserts Gracián, interlineally.
Gracián deletes "the essence of".
Gracián substitutes "understanding" for "thoughts" and adds a marginal note: "This is (to be) understood of acts of the understanding and the will, for the thoughts of the imagination are clearly seen by the devil unless God blinds him in that respect." Luis de León included the marginal note in the text of his edition but Gracián did not reproduce it in either the text or the margin of the Córdoba copy though he altered "thoughts" to "understanding".
Gracián inserts the word "nature" here, interlineally.
[P. Silverio refers here to Way of perfection, Chap. XXXI, but I hardly think this can be meant. Perhaps the author's allusion is to the first chapter of the Fourth Mansions or possibly to something she once said viva voce.]
[Lit.: "a something": the Spanish is un no sé qué, an expression corresponding to the French un je ne sais quoi.]
Gracián alters "as" to "as being, I think".
Gracián inserts: "it thinks."
Gracián amends the following phrase to read: "but that there has since remained with it, as it thinks, a certainty, etc."
Gracián alters this phrase to: "which made her understand this in such a way."
St. Teresa refers to this experience of hers in Life, Chap. XVIII (Image Books Edition, p. 180). Later, a favour which she received (Relations, LIV: Vol. I, p. 361.) enlightened her further on this point. According to Yepes (II, xx) she asked him for theological guidance about it just before she began the Interior Castle.
The rest of this paragraph was omitted by Luis de León.
Canticles i, 3; ii, 4. Gracián deletes the bracketed phrase but writes "put" above "brought".
Canticles iii, 2.
Here and just below Gracián has crossed out the word "centre".
128St. John xx, 19.
"Mustard-seeds," writes Gracián, interlineally, deleting the bracketed sentence which follows and adding the words: "It is so, for I have seen it."
Colossians iii, 3. Gracián deletes "for that . . . my purpose" and supplies text and source in the margin.
[Lit.: "Whether this be so or not." But the meaning is clear from the context.]
The words "I meant . . . at all" are omitted from the editio princeps.
A characteristically emphatic phrase -- en fin, fin.
[Cf. Ch. 1, above. The reference here is clearly to Canticles ii, 4.]
St. Luke xxii, 15.
St. Teresa herself.
St. Teresa herself. Cf. Life, Chap. VII (Image Books Edition, p. 105).
[The phrase is very emphatic: Harto provecho, harto -- "exceedingly great profit, exceedingly."]
St. John xi, 35.
St. Teresa added here the word acullá, "yonder", which Luis de León altered to en lo susodicho, "in what is (said) above". [This affects the sense: Luis de León's alteration suggests that the silkworm is referred to, which seems to me unlikely. I take acullá to refer to the end of one's life and acá to mean "here and now".]
[Lit.: "to kill it ourselves." By "it", which in the Spanish can only stand for "life", is presumably meant the Pauline "old man".]
Jonas iv, 6-7 [The "gourd" of A.V.]
St. John xvii, 22.
[Encapotadas: lit., covering their faces with a cloak, muffled up. Metaphorically, the word can mean "frowning", "sullen". Here a less reprehensible meaning seems indicated.]
Cf. Way of perfection, Chap. VII.
The words "in . . . souls" were written by St. Teresa interlineally and "because . . . repose" were added by her in the margin.
[Vengan a vistas: lit., "have sight of each other", "have an interview with each other"; and, in that sense, "come together" or "meet".]
[This sounds contradictory, but the word "take" (tomar each time in the Spanish) is of course used in two different senses.]
No fué más de una vista. [Cf. n. 147, above.]
Luis de León omitted the reference to St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Society of Jesus from his edition, reading: "and other founders of Orders, all of whom, as we read, etc."
Gracián deletes, and León omits, the words "and the Holy Spirit".
[St. Teresa is not always consistent in her use of singular and plural in referring to each stage of the Mystic Way. The translation, throughout, follows her here exactly.]
St. Teresa herself: cf. Life, Chap. XXVIII.
The person referred to is no doubt the author. [It was almost exactly forty years since she had professed at the Incarnation.]
[Lit.: "for many days"; but, as we have already seen, St. Teresa often uses that phrase vaguely.]
At this point in the autograph, St. Teresa wrote the word "Chapter", evidently intending to end the first chapter of the Sixth Mansions here, but deleted it again. Luis de León treated the insertion as valid and began the new chapter with the following paragraph: he was followed by other editors until the mid-nineteenth century. The autograph, however, does not support this procedure.
The author had first written: "or a lightning-flash. Although no light is seen"; but she deleted this and substituted the phrase in the text.
[The verb used is deshacerse, "to undo oneself", implying here the utmost effort.]
A. Francisco de Santo Tomás, O.C.D., in his Médula mystica (Trat. VI, Cap. i), has a succinct description of the three types of locution referred to by St. Teresa, a classification applicable to visions also: "Some are corporeal, some imaginary and some spiritual or intellectual. Corporeal locutions are those actually heard by the physical powers of hearing. . . . Imaginary locutions are not heard in that way but the impression apprehended and received by the imaginative faculty is the same as though they had been. . . . In spiritual or intellectual locutions God imprints what He is about to say in the depth of the spirit: there is no sound, or voice, or either corporeal or imaginary representation of such, but an expression of (certain) concepts in the depth of the spirit and in the faculty of the understanding, and as this is not corporeal, but spiritual, the species, or similitudes, under which it is apprehended are not corporeal, but spiritual." Intellectual locutions, as explained by St. John of the Cross (Ascent of Mount Carmel, Book II, Chaps. XXVI-XXX), are of three kinds: successive, formal and substantial.
[St. Luke xxiv, 36.]
Josue x, 12-13.
[The original here interpolates two clauses, con cuanto veis, u que nos está bien, which, translated literally as "with all that you see or that it is acceptable to us", make no sense. I suspect that, if St. Teresa had re-read her work, the phrase would have been omitted or clarified. Freely it might be rendered: "wonderful as you see it to be and much as we appreciate it", or, "however many visions you see or however much we desire them", but I am not convinced that either of these translations represents the author's meaning and other paraphrases are admissible.]
Life, Chap. XX; Relations, V.
The phrase "assuming . . . teaches" was added by St. Teresa, in the autograph, as a marginal note.
Genesis xxviii, 12.
Exodus iii, 2.
"Two days" adds the editio princeps. The visit was made at the beginning of 1574: see "Outline, etc.", Vol. I, p. xxxi, above.
The sentence "I can . . . whole" was written by St. Teresa in the margin of the autograph.
[Or "some": the Spanish word, alguna, can have either a singular or a plural sense.]
[The "streets and the broad ways" of Canticles iii, 2.]
St. John ix, 6-7.
Cf. Life, Chap. XXXI [Image Books Edition, 292].
This is Luis de León's emendation of the sentence in the autograph, which reads: "I do not use the word 'feigned', because those who experience them do not wish to deceive, but because [sic] they are deceived themselves." Gracián, in the Córdoba copy, emends similarly, though not identically. Both evidently express what St. Teresa meant but failed to put clearly.
The mystics concur with St. Thomas in holding that ecstasy, rapture, transport, flight of the spirit, etc., are in substance one and the same, though there are accidental differences between them, as St. Teresa explains here, in Life, Chap. XX, and in Relations, V.
IV, chapter ii.
St. Luke xii, 28.
St. Teresa received this favour at Seville about 1575-6. Cf. Relations, LI (Vol. I, The Complete Works of St. Teresa, p. 360.)
Numbers xiii, 18-24.
[Los trabajos de este camino tan trabajoso: the word-play is intentional.]
[Vistas. Cf. n. 147, above.]
Exodus xiv, 21-2; Josue iii, 13.
In the office of this Saint the Church recalls these words of his: "Lord, if I am still necessary to Thy people, I do not refuse toil: Thy will be done."
[Cf. Life, Chap. XVIII: Image Books Edition, p. 168].
St. Luke xv, 11-32.
Life, Chap. XXII.
Life, Chaps. XXII-XXIV.
St. John xiv, 6.
The words "the Lord . . . light" [which clearly interrupt the thought of the passage] are in the author's hand, but are marginal.
St. John xiv, 6.
St. John xiv, 9.
[I.e., the understanding.]
3 Kings [A.V., 1 Kings] xviii, 30-9.
194Canticles iii, 3.
195"Or Confessions" is a marginal addition in St. Teresa's hand. The passage alluded to comes from Chapter XXXI of the Soliloquies, a work first published in Spanish at Venice in 1512 and often reprinted in Spain during the sixteenth century. A passage very similar to this will be found in the Confessions, Bk. X, Chap. VI.
Foundations, Chap. VI.
St. John xvi, 7.
198For St. Teresa's treatment of intellectual vision, see Life, Chaps. XXVII, XXVIII.
[Cf. Life, Chap. XXVII.]
St. Matthew xxv, 41. [The abrupt change of pronoun is reproduced exactly from the Spanish.]
[This characteristic example of St. Teresa's word-play is allowed to stand in translation, though to English ears it may sound artificial. See Introduction, Life; Image Books Edition, pp. 20-21].
[Dar higas. Cf. note on this phrase, The Life of Teresa of Avila, trans. and edited, by E. Allison Peers; Image Books Edition, p. 243, n: 9. The theologian referred to was P. Báñez: cf. Life, Chap. XXIX, Foundations, Chap. VIII.]
Psalm cxv, 11 [: "I said in my excess: 'Every man as a liar,'" Cf. A.V., Psalm cxvi. 11.]
St. John xvii, 38.
St. John iv, 7-13.
The words of the parenthesis were inserted by St. Teresa in the margin of the autograph.
Cf. Relations XV. [The Complete Works of St. Teresa Vol. I., p. 340. This incident took place at Salamanca in 1571. The singer was M. Isabel de Jesús. The song begins:
Let mine eyes behold Thee, Sweetest Jesu, nigh; Let mine eyes behold Thee, And at once I'll die.
[It has no verbal reference, as our text suggests, to "life not ending", but this is its general theme, as it is also that of several poems by St. Teresa herself.]
[Lit.: "and is dying in order to die" -- a reference, no doubt, to the poem to be found in Vol. III, The Complete Works of St. Teresa, pp. 277-9].
St. Matthew xx, 22: "'Can you drink the chalice that I shall drink?' They say to Him: 'We can."'
St. Luke vii, 44.
Gracián altered "capable" to "prepared".
"To win merit" is the Saint's marginal addition.
This paragraph was considerably altered in the editio princeps.
Acts ix, 8.
[Acts ix, 18.]
Gracián reads: "vision or knowledge, born of faith."
Luis de León added the following note here: "Though man in this life, if so raised by God, may lose the use of his senses and have a fleeting glimpse of the Divine Essence, as was probably the case with St. Paul and Moses and certain others, the Mother is not speaking here of this kind of vision, which, though fleeting, is intuitive and clear, but of a knowledge of this mystery which God gives to certain souls, through a most powerful light which He infuses into them, not without created species. But as this species is not corporeal, nor figured in the imagination, the Mother says that this vision is intellectual and not imaginary.
Gracián reads: "grasp better, it seems."
Gracián reads: "either of the body (for God is Spirit) or of the imagination.
St. John xiv, 23.
Gracián adds: "as they are commonly believed and heard."
St. Luke x, 40.
Cf. Relations, XXXV (Vol. I, The Complete Works of St. Teresa, pp. 351-2.)
The words "but through an intellectual" and "although . . . mentioned" are substituted by St. Teresa for others which she has deleted.
St. John xx, 19, 21.
1 Corinthians vi, 17. [The Spanish has two verbs, arrimarse and allegarse, corresponding to "joined", and linked by the word "and". The Scriptural text reads: "He who is joined to the Lord is one spirit."] The whole of the passage "He who . . . by union" is St. Teresa's interlinear substitution for something deleted.
228Philippians i, 21: "For to me, to live is Christ; and to die is gain."
[Lit.: "that they cannot."] The words "that what . . . doubted" are scored through in the original -- we suspect by Gracián.
St. John xx, 19, 21 [Cf. p. 214, n. 226, above.]
St. Luke vi, 50.
Gracián deletes the bracketed words and substitutes the Scriptural test, giving its source (St. John xvii, 21) in the margin.
St. John xvii, 20.
St. John xvii, 23.
[Cf. St. Teresa's poem on this theme, Vol. III, The Complete Words of St. Teresa, pp. 287-8.]
Psalm i, 3.
[Cf. VII, n. 224, above;] Relations, XXXV (Vol. I, The Complete Works of St. Teresa, p. 352).
In the margin of the autograph St. Teresa wrote at this point: "Cuando dice aquí: os pide, léase luego este papel." ["When you get to the words asking of you in it, go straight on to this paper."] "This paper" is no longer extant, but Luis de León evidently had it, as the rest of this paragraph, though not in the autograph, figures in his edition. It is also found, with slight modifications, in early copies.
Acts ix, 6.
The bracketed phrase is St. Teresa's marginal addition.
Luis de León modifies this paragraph thus. After "save very occasionally" he adds, in parenthesis: "that is, as I say here, with respect to these exterior epoch of the suspension of the senses and loss of heat; but they tell me that only the accidents disappear and that interiorly there is rather an increase." He then continues: "So the raptures, in the way I describe, cease, and it [the soul] has not these raptures and Bights of the spirit; or, if it has them, only rarely, and hardly ever in public as it very often had before."
Apocalypse xxi, 3.
Genesis viii, 8, 9.
St. Luke xviii, 13.
3 Kings [A.V. 1 Kings] xi.
Psalm cxi [A.V., cxii], 1.
1 Thessalonians ii, 9.
In the old Carmelite Breviary, which St. Teresa would have used, the Antiphon of the Magnificat at First Vespers on June 29 runs: "The Blessed Apostle Peter saw Christ coming to meet him. Adoring Him, he said: 'Lord, whither goest Thou?' 'I am going to Rome to be crucified afresh.'" The story has it that St. Peter returned to Rome and was crucified.
Psalm xvii (A.V. xviii), 26.
3 Kings [A.V. 1 Kings] xix, 10.
St. Luke x, 42.
St. Luke vii, 37-8.
St. Luke vii, 39.
This sentence is authentic but marginal.
"And mazes", adds Luis de León. The words also occur in several copies of the autograph, including that of Toledo, but not in the autograph itself. There is reason to suppose, however, that there may have been two autographs of this epilogue.
"By the mercy of God" is the Saint's marginal addition.
The Nazarenes of Mount Carmel
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